STIMULATION OF DETERIORATED SEEDS OF BREAD WHEAT AND TEST THEIR ABILITY TO INDUCE CALLUS IN VITRO

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28/10/2014 12:56 PM

STIMULATION OF DETERIORATED SEEDS OF BREAD WHEAT AND TEST THEIR ABILITY TO INDUCE CALLUS IN VITRO


 
Jalal H. Hamza
Ibrahim A. Hamza
Noor R. Mohammad
Lamees E. Abdul-Jabaar
Dept. of Field Crop Sciences - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad
jhhamza@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT


Two experiments were carried out at the laboratory of the Dept. of Field Crop Sci. Dept., College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during 2011-2012. The first was to study the effect of treatments T0 control, T1 seeds soaked with distilled water then dried, T2 seeds soaked with PEG 6000 (-1MPa) solution then dried, T3 seeds soaked with gibberellic acid (0.5 mg.l-1), T4 seeds passed through magnetic funnel (500 Gauss), T5 seeds soaked with distilled water then passed through magnetic funnel (500 Gauss) on stimulation of deteriorated seed (ger-mination 39%) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Al-Fatih. The second was to induct callus from embryo of deteriorated seed after stimulated via previous treatments then added different concentrations of 2,4-D (0, 0.75, 1.5, 3 mg.l-1) to the cultural media which was prepared for that purpose. This study aimed to stimulate de-teriorated seeds to improve germination's characteristics and induction of callus. Complete randomization de-sign was used. The results showed that stimulation by seeds soaked in gibberellic acid T3 was the best among the methods used. Also T2, T5 and T4 significantly outperformed the control treatment for most characteristics. Re-sults showed that germination rate index is closest to the expression of germination speed, because it coincided with the high germination percentage in first and final count compared with coefficient of velocity of germina-tion. Highest fresh and dry weight of induced callus were at 1.5 (mg.l-1 2,4-D) 93.7 and 9.6 mg respectively, they were 71.2 and 7.3 mg respectively at T3, and 107.8 and 10.9 respectively at the interactions of above treatments. We conclude that the methods of stimulation used had effectiveness in improving the viability and vigour of de-teriorated seeds of wheat. The best was soaking with gibberellic acid T3. Also, treated deteriorated seeds with 0.5 (mg.l-1 GA3) for 6 hours has improved embryo viability of deteriorated seeds, which was reflected positively in the induction of callus at the concentration of 1.5 (mg. l-1 2,4-D). We recommend conduction further tests to de-termine the response of deteriorated seeds of several varieties of bread wheat using several methods of stimula-tion. As well as study the effectiveness of the stimulation mechanism to escape from the environment stresses and induction of callus



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